Homework in Progress Alpha Tocopherols :D
I really tried hard to looking for EBM about alpha tocopherol and still find out how about action mechanism , but in general little bit understand. its mix homework, Indonesia and english :P, I love gado gado..
Imunomodulator adalah senyawa tertentu yang dapat meningkatkan mekanisme pertahanan tubuh baik secara spesifik maupun non spesifik. Yang terutama terjadi adalah induksi non spesifik baik mekanisme pertahanan seluler maupun humoral (Widianto 1987).
Ingestion of vitamin E, an antioxidant nutrient, in amounts above current recommendations may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, enhance immune status, and otherwise modulate important degenerative conditions associated with aging. The effects of vitamin supplementation on the age-related decline in immune function was studied in a population of elderly subjects with a high prevalence of low and deficient serum values of vitamin C, vitamin E, riboflavin and pyridoxin, as well as iron and zinch. Vitamin and nutrition may be an important determinant of immunocompetence in the elderly (Buzina-Suboticanec et al. 1998).
Vitamin E is the term for a group of tocopherols and tocotrienols, of which alpha-tocopherol has the highest biological activity (Brigelius-Flohé and Traber 1999).
α-Tocopherol is a form of vitamin E that is preferentially absorbed and accumulated in humans (Rigotti 2007). The measurement of “vitamin E” activity in international units (IU).
α-tocopherol stimulates the production of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). Inhibitor studies demonstrate that the prostaglandin EP2 and EP4 receptors and adenylyl cyclases mediate the effects of α-tocopherol on cAMP production. Additionally, we show that α-tocopherol attenuates pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine production. This study provides novel evidence that α-tocopherol stimulates cAMP signaling, suggesting a mechanism of action for the immunomodulatory effects of vitamin E (Salinthone et al. 2013).
We concluded that α-tocopherol pre-treatment has a significant antagonistic effect that modulates the cell’s response to the TNF-α challenge by altering the gene expression activities of some important signaling molecules (Li et al. 2011)
Increased intake of vitamin E through selection of foods with large amounts of that vitamin and daily consumption of 5-8 servings of fruit and vegetables may reduce risk for cardiovascular disease and improve immune function in later life (M. Meydani 2000).
Specimens fed the diet supplemented with 600 mg vitamin E kg−1showed no enhancement in any of their immune parameters, while those fed the diet supplemented with 1200 mg vitamin E kg−1presented a slightly higher (but not statistically significant) specific growth rate than fish fed the other diets. In addition, serum haemolytic activity and the phagocytosis of head–kidney leucocytes were enhanced by the dietary intake of 1200 mg vitamin E kg−1after 30 and 45 days of treatment, although leucocyte migration and respiratory burst activity remained unaffected. The highest vitamin E dietary dose used, 1800 mg kg−1, unexpectedly provoked no immunostimulation. These results indicate that a moderate level of vitamin E in the diet (1200 mg kg−1) stimulates the seabream’s non-specific immune system after 30 days of administration. Lower or higher vitamin E concentrations may not be so effective, because of an imbalance in the vitamin E ratio with other antioxidants (Ortuño, Esteban, and Meseguer 2000).
vitamin E greater than currently recommended enhances certain clinically relevant in vivo indexes of T-cell-mediated function in healthy elderly persons. No adverse effects were observed with vitamin E supplementation (S. N. Meydani et al. 1997).
We have investigated the effects of supplementation of the diet with the antioxidant vitamins C and E on several functions of the immune response of aged women. These findings suggest an important role of antioxidant supplementation in the improvement of immune function in aged females as well as in the prevention and treatment of specific diseases associated with age that are quite prevalent in the developed countries (de la Fuente et al. 1998)
Although the mechanism behind the immunostimulatory effect of vitamin E is still unknown, there is compelling evidence that vitamin E may exert its immunoenhancing effect by regulating prostaglandin synthesis, decreasing free radical formation, or both (S. N. Meydani and Beharka 1998).
Vitamin E was determined by the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. All the plants tested showed differences in their alpha-tocopherol content and the differences were significant (p < 0.05). The highest alpha-tocopherol content was in Sauropus androgynus leaves (426.8 mg/kg edible portion), followed by Citrus hystrix leaves (398.3 mg/kg), Calamus scipronum (193.8 mg/kg), starfruit leaves Averrhoa belimbi (168.3 mg/kg), red pepper Capsicum annum (155.4 mg/kg), local celery Apium graveolens (136.4 mg/kg), sweet potato shoots Ipomoea batatas (130.1 mg/kg), Pandanus odorus (131.5 mg/kg), Oenanthe javanica (146.8 mg/kg), black tea Camelia chinensis (183.3 mg/kg),papaya Carica papaya shoots (111.3 mg/kg), wolfberry leaves Lycium chinense (94.4 mg/kg), bird chili Capsicum frutescens leaves (95.4 mg/kg), drumstick Moringa oleifera leaves (90.0 mg/kg), green chili Capsicum annum (87 mg/kg), Allium fistulosum leaves (74.6 mg/kg), and bell pepper Capsicum annum (71.0 mg/kg). alpha-Tocopherol was not detected in Brassica oleracea, Phaeomeria speciosa, Pachyrrhizus speciosa, Pleurotus sajor-caju, and Solanum melongena (Ching and Mohamed 2001).
Brigelius-Flohé, R, and M G Traber. 1999. “Vitamin E: Function and Metabolism.” FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 13 (10) (July): 1145–1155.
Buzina-Suboticanec, K, R Buzina, A Stavljenic, T M Farley, J Haller, B Bergman-Markovic, and M Gorajscan. 1998. “Ageing, Nutritional Status and Immune Response.” International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research. Internationale Zeitschrift Für Vitamin- Und Ernährungsforschung. Journal International De Vitaminologie Et De Nutrition 68 (2): 133–141.
Ching, L S, and S Mohamed. 2001. “Alpha-tocopherol Content in 62 Edible Tropical Plants.” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 49 (6) (June): 3101–3105.
de la Fuente, M, M D Ferrández, M S Burgos, A Soler, A Prieto, and J Miquel. 1998. “Immune Function in Aged Women Is Improved by Ingestion of Vitamins C and E.” Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 76 (4) (April): 373–380.
Li, Cong-Jun, Robert W. Li, Stanislaw Kahl, and Theodore H. Elsasser. 2011. “Alpha-Tocopherol Alters Transcription Activities That Modulates Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNF-α) Induced Inflammatory Response in Bovine Cells.” Gene Regulation and Systems Biology 6 (December 5): 1–14. doi:10.4137/GRSB.S8303.
Meydani, M. 2000. “Effect of Functional Food Ingredients: Vitamin E Modulation of Cardiovascular Diseases and Immune Status in the Elderly.” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 71 (6 Suppl) (June): 1665S–8S; discussion 1674S–5S.
Meydani, S N, and A A Beharka. 1998. “Recent Developments in Vitamin E and Immune Response.” Nutrition Reviews 56 (1 Pt 2) (January): S49–58.
Meydani, S N, M Meydani, J B Blumberg, L S Leka, G Siber, R Loszewski, C Thompson, M C Pedrosa, R D Diamond, and B D Stollar. 1997. “Vitamin E Supplementation and in Vivo Immune Response in Healthy Elderly Subjects. A Randomized Controlled Trial.” JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association 277 (17) (May 7): 1380–1386.
Ortuño, J, M.A Esteban, and J Meseguer. 2000. “High Dietary Intake of Α-tocopherol Acetate Enhances the Non-specific Immune Response of Gilthead Seabream (Sparus Aurata L.).” Fish & Shellfish Immunology 10 (4) (May): 293–307. doi:10.1006/fsim.1999.0238.
Rigotti, Attilio. 2007. “Absorption, Transport, and Tissue Delivery of Vitamin E.” Molecular Aspects of Medicine 28 (5-6) (December): 423–436. doi:10.1016/j.mam.2007.01.002.
Salinthone, Sonemany, Amelia R. Kerns, Vivian Tsang, and Daniel W. Carr. 2013. “α-Tocopherol (vitamin E) Stimulates Cyclic AMP Production in Human Peripheral Mononuclear Cells and Alters Immune Function.” Molecular Immunology 53 (3) (March): 173–178. doi:10.1016/j.molimm.2012.08.005.
Widianto, Mathilda B. 1987. “Imunomodulator.” Cermin Dunia Kedokteran No. 44: 44–46.